The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Shaked, Shaul

[personal] [publication list] [research interests]


1933, Born Debrecen, Hungary; has lived in Israel since 1934.
1955, B.A. in Arabic Language and Literature and Semitic Philology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem;
1960, M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature and Comparative Religion, Hebrew University, Jerusalem;
1964, Ph.D. in Iranian Languages, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
1964/5, Assistant Lecturer, School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

From 1965, Lecturer, subsequently Senior Lecturer, Associate Professor and Professor at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.

At various periods: Chairman, Department of Indian, Iranian and Armenian Studies, Hebrew University; Chairman, Department of Comparative Religion, Hebrew University; Chairman, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Hebrew University.

1969/70, Visiting Professor, University of California, Berkeley;
1975/6, Visiting Professor, Harvard University;
1979/80, Fellow, Institute for Advanced Studies, Jerusalem;
1980/1, Visiting Professor, New York University and Columbia University;
1987/8, Visiting Professor, Hochschule fr Jdische Studien, Heidelberg, and Ruprecht-Karls-Universitהt Heidelberg; Visiting Fellow, Wolfson College, Cambridge;
1992/3, Fellow, The Annenberg Research Institute, Philadelphia; Directeur d'יtudes invitי, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Section des Sciences Religieuses, Paris.
1994/5, Fellow, the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (NIAS).

Member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Since 1995, Chairman of the Section of Humanities and Social Sciences at the Israel Academy.

1993, Recipient of the Yoram Ben-Porat prize for distinguished research (awarded by Israel Pollack).

Since 1995, Honorary Fellow of University College, London. Since 1995, Vice-President of the Societas Iranologica Europaea. Chairman of the Academic Board, Ben-Zvi Institute, Jerusalem.

Member of the editorial boards of Israel Oriental Studies, vols. 1-7; Bulletin of the Asia Institute; Pe'amim. Chairman of the editorial board, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam.

Main Publications


  1. A tentative bibliography of Geniza documents (Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Etudes Juives, V), Paris- The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964. 355 pp.
  2. Wisdom of the Sasanian Sages. An edition, with translation and notes, of Denkard, Book Six. Persian Heritage Series. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1979. lv+378 pp.
  3. Irano-Judaica. Studies relating to Jewish contacts with Persian culture throughout the ages, ed. by S. Shaked. Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute 1982.
  4. Amulets and magic bowls. Aramaic incantations of late antiquity, by J. Naveh and S. Shaked, Jerusalem- Leiden: Magnes Press and Brill 1985.
  5. Gilgul. Essays on transformation, revolution and permanence in the history of religions dedicated to R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, edited by S. Shaked, D. Shulman, G.G. Stroumsa (Studies in the History of Religions, Supplements to Numen, L), Leiden, etc.: Brill 1987.
  6. Irano-Judaica. Studies relating to Jewish contacts with Persian culture throughout the ages, II, edited by S. Shaked and A. Netzer, Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 1990.
  7. Messiah and Christos. Studies in the Jewish origins of Christianity presented to David Flusser, edited by I. Gruenwald; S. Shaked; and G.G. Stroumsa (Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum, 32), Tubingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck) 1992.
  8. Firdausi, Shah-nama, in Hebrew translation, scholarly editor.1992
  9. Magic spells and formulae. Aramaic incantations of Late Antiquity, by J. Naveh and S. Shaked, Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1993.
  10. Dualism in Transformation. Varieties of Religion in Sasanian Iran (The Jordan Lectures in Comparative Religion), London: School of Oriental and African Studies 1994.
  11. Magische Texte aus der Kairoer Geniza, I, in Zusammmenarbeit mit M. Jacobs, C. Rohrbacher-Sticker und G. Veltri herausgegeben von P. Schafer und S. Shaked, Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1994. (Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum, 42).
  12. Irano-Judaica. Studies relating to Jewish contacts with Persian culture throughout the ages, III, edited by S. Shaked and A. Netzer, Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 1994.
  13. From Zoroastrian Iran to Islam. Studies in religious history and intercultural contacts (Collected Studies Series, CS505), Aldershot: Variorum, 1995.
  14. Magische Texte aus der Kairoer Geniza, II, in Zusammenarbeit mit Reimund Leicht, Giuseppe Veltri und Irina Wandrey herausgegeben von Peter Schהfer und Shaul Shaked, Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997. (Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum, 64).

ARTICLES (Selected list)

  1. A.D.H. Bivar and S. Shaked, "The inscriptions at Shimbar", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 27 (1964), 265-280.
  2. "Some notes on Ahreman, the Evil Spirit, and his creation", Studies in mysticism and religion presented to G.G. Scholem, Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1967, 227- 254.
  3. "Esoteric trends in Zoroastrianism", Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 3 (1969), 175-221.
  4. "Notes on the new Aoka inscription from Kandahar", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1969, 118-122.
  5. "Specimens of Middle Persian verse", Henning Memorial Volume, London 1970, 395-405.
  6. "Eschatology and the goal of the religious life in Sasanian Zoroastrianism", in: J. Bleeker and R.J.Z. Werblowsky (eds.), Types of redemption (Supplements to Numen), Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1970, 223-230.
  7. "Judaeo-Persian notes", Israel Oriental Studies, 1 (1971), 178-182.
  8. "The notions menog and getig in the Pahlavi texts and their relation to eschatology", Acta Orientalia, 33 (1971), 59-107.
  9. J. Naveh and S. Shaked, "A recently published Aramaic papyrus", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 91 (1971), 379-382.
  10. תעודה קראית קדומה בפרסית יהודית, תרביץ מא, תשל"ב, 49-58 ["An early Karaite document in Judaeo-Persian", Tarbiz, 41 (1972), 49-58].
  11. J.C. Greenfield and S. Shaked, "Three Iranian words in the Targum of Job from Qumran", Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlהndischen Gesellschaft, 122 (1972), 37-45.
  12. "Amarkal" (Hebrew and English), E.Y. Kutscher (ed.), ?Erkhei, Archive of the New Dictionary of Rabbinical Literature, I, Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University, 1972, 112, XXXIV.
  13. "Qumran and Iran: further considerations", Israel Oriental Studies, 2 (1972), 433-446.
  14. J. Naveh and S. Shaked, "Ritual texts or treasury documents?", Orientalia, 42 (1973), 445-457.
  15. "Ambiguous words in Pahlavi", Israel Oriental Studies, 4 (1974), 227-257.
  16. "Some terms relating to Man in Pahlavi, I. axw (ox)", Mיlanges J. de Menasce, Paris 1974, 255-262.
  17. "Some legal and administrative terms of the Sasanian period", Monumentum H.S. Nyberg, Acta Iranica, Tehran- Liege-Leiden 1975, 213-225.
  18. "Notes on the inscription of the Foroughi bowl", Artibus Asiae, 38 (1976), 47-48.
  19. "Observations on the study of Oriental Jewish communities", AJS Newsletter, 18 (1976), 5-6, 9.
  20. "Persia and the origins of the Karaite movement", AJS Newsletter, 18 (1976), 7-9.
  21. "Jewish and Christian seals of the Sasanian period", G. Wiet Memorial Volume, Jerusalem 1977, 17-31, pl. IV.
  22. נספח ביהודית-פרסית, בתוך: אפרים א' אורבך, ספר פתרון תורה, ילקוט מדרשים ופירושים, ירושלים תשל"ח (1978) 347-352 ["Appendix in Judaeo-Persian", in: E.E. Urbach (ed.), Pitron tora, yalqut midrashim u-perushim, Jerusalem: Magnes and the Jewish National and University Library, 1978, 347-352].
  23. [Review article: Jurgen Hampel, Die Kopenhagener Handschrift Cod. 27], Indo-Iranian Journal, 20 (1978), 102-105.
  24. "A Persian letter from the time of Tamerlane from the Cairo Geniza", Studia Orientalia memoriae D.H. Baneth dedicata, Jerusalem 1979, 239-244, pl. I-III.
  25. מורשת יהדות המזרח ומחקרה: מגמות ובעיות ["The heritage of Oriental Jewry and its research: trends and problems"], Pe'amim, 1 (1979), 7-14.
  26. שיר השירים בפרסית יהודית, פעמים 2, תשל"ט, 109-111 ["The Song of Songs in Judaeo-Persian", Pe'amim, 2 (1979), 109-111].
  27. "Mihr the Judge", Jerusalem Studies in Arabiand Islam, 2 (1980), 1-31.
  28. "Epigraphica Judaeo-Iranica", Studies in Judaism and Islam presented to S.D. Goitein, Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1981, 65-82, pl.
  29. "Two Judaeo-Iranian contributions", in S. Shaked, (ed.), Irano-Judaica, Jerusalem 1982, 292-322.
  30. "Pahlavi notes: 1. dahisn 'reflection'; 2. juttar 'evil'", Monumentum G. Morgenstierne II, (Acta Iranica), Leiden: Brill 1982, 197-205.
  31. על ספרות הכישוף היהודית בארצות האסלאם: הערות ודוגמאות, פעמים 15, תשמ"ג, 15-28 ["On Jewish literature of magic in Muslim countries: comments and specimens", Pe'amim, 15 (1983):15-28].
  32. השפעת הדת האיראנית על היהדות, בתוך: תולדות העם היהודי, שיבת ציון, התקופה הפרסית, ירושלים: א' פלאי, 1983, 236-250, 315-317 [The influence of the Iranian religion on Judaism]
  33. "From Iran to Islam. Notes on some themes in transmission: 1. Religion and sovereignty are twins? in Ibn al-Muqaffa''s theory of government; 2. The four sages", Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 4 (1984), 31-67.
  34. "Iranian influences in Judaism", Cambridge History of Judaism, I, Cambridge: Cambridge UP 1984, 308-442.
  35. ש"ד גויטיין, חוקר השותפות ההיסטורית שבין היהדות לאסלאם, פעמים 22, תשמ"ה, 4-9 ["S.D. Goitein: historian of the Jewish-Islamic symbiosis" Pe'amim 22 (1985):4-9].
  36. פרקים במורשתם הקדומה של יהודי פרס, פעמים 23, תשמ"ה, 1985, 22-37 ["Aspects of the early heritage of Persian Jews"].
  37. "Bagdana, King of the Demons, and other Iranian terms in Babylonian Aramaic magic", Acta Iranica 24 (Papers in honour of Professor Mary Boyce, II), Leiden: E.J. Brill 1985, 511-525.
  38. "Andarz and andarz literature in pre-Islamic Iran", Encyclopaedia Iranica II (1985):11-16.
  39. J.C. Greenfield and Joseph Naveh (with notes on Iranian matters by S. Shaked), קמיע מנדעי בעל ארבע השבעות, ארץ ישראל 18, כרך נחמן אביגד, ירושלים 1985, 97-107 ("A Mandaic lead amulet with four incantations").
  40. "From Iran to Islam: On some symbols of royalty", Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 7 (1986), 75-91.
  41. "Iranian loanwords in Middle Aramaic", Encyclopaedia Iranica II (1986), 259-261.
  42. A. Negev, with a contribution by J. Naveh and S. Shaked, "Obodas the God", Israel Exploration Journal 36 (1986), 56-60.
  43. S. Shaked and J. Naveh, "Three Aramaic seals of the Achaemenid period", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1986, 21-29.
  44. S. Pines and S. Shaked, "Fragment of a Jewish- Christian composition from the Cairo Geniza", in: M. Sharon (ed.), Studies in Islamic history and civilization in honour of David Ayalon, Jerusalem: Cana and Leiden: Brill 1986, 307-318.
  45. "An unusual verbal form in early Judaeo-Persian", in: R. Schmitt and P.O. Skjaervo (eds.), Studia grammatica iranica. Festschrift fr H. Humbach (Mnchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft), Mnchen: Kitzinger 1986, 393- 405.
  46. M. Gil and S. Shaked, [Review of M. B. Morony, Iraq after the Muslim conquest, Princeton 1984], Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (1986), 819-823.
  47. "Payman: an Iranian idea in contact with Greek thought and Islam", Transition periods in Iranian history. Actes du Symposium de Fribourg-en-Brisgau (22-24 mai 1985) (Studia Iranica. Cahier 5), Paris: Association pour l'Avancement des Etudes Iraniennes 1987, 217-240.
  48. "A facetious recipe and the two wisdoms: Iranian themes in Muslim garb", Jerusalem Studies in Arabaic and Islam 9 (1987), 24-35.
  49. "First man, first king. Notes on Semitic-Iranian syncretism and Iranian mythological transformations", Gilgul. Essays on transformation, revolution and permanence in the history of religions dedicated to R.J.Zwi Werblowsky, Leiden: Brill 1987, 238-256.
  50. [Review of: J.B. Segal, Aramaic texts from North Saqqara, London 1983], Orientalia 56 (1987), 407-413.
  51. "Moreen's Babai ibn Lutf's Chronicle", Jewish Quarterly Review 77 (1986/7), 247-250.
  52. "Ayadgar-i Wuzurgmihr", Encyclopaedia Iranica III, fasc. 2, 1987, 127-128.
  53. "Mythes d'origine comme actes de commemoration et de differenciation en Iran sasanide", in: Ph. Gignoux (ed.), La commיmoration. Colloque du centenaire de la Section des Sciences Religieuses de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Bibliothטque de l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes, Sciences Religieuses, vol. 91), Louvain-Paris: Peeters 1988, 211-218.
  54. "An early magic fragment from the Cairo Geniza", in: R. Dan (ed.), Occident and Orient. A tribute to the memory of Alexander Scheiber, Budapest: Akademiai Kiadף, and Leiden: Brill, 1988, 361-371.
  55. פרס כדגם למפגש בין תרבויות, בתוך: התבוללות וטמיעה. המשכיות ותמורה בתרבות העמים ובישראל, ירושלים: מרכז זלמן שז"ר, תשמ"ט, 107-117 ["Persia as a model for intercultural contact"].
  56. "An early Geniza fragment in an unknown Iranian dialect", Acta Iranica (Hommages et opera minora, vol. 12: Barg-e sabz. A Green leaf. Papers in honour of Prof. J.P. Asmussen), Leiden: Brill, 1988, 219-235.
  57. [Review of: Skalmowski, Wojciech and Alois van Tongerloo (eds.). 1984. Middle Iranian studies. Proceedings of the International Symposium organized by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven ... May 1982 (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 16), Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters], Bibliotheca Orientalis 45 (1988), 155-162.
  58. "Middle Persian translations of the Bible", Encyclopaedia Iranica IV, fasc. 2 (1989), 206-207.
  59. "Notes on the preposition be in Judaeo-Persian", in: C.H. de Fouchיcour and Ph. Gignoux (eds.), Etudes irano-aryennes offertes א Gilbert Lazard (Studia Iranica, Cahier 7), Paris: Association pour l'Avancement des Etudes Iraniennes, 1989, 315-319.
  60. "On the interpretation of cosmogonical myths", in: S. Fred Singer (ed.), The universe and its origins. From ancient myth to present reality and fantasy, New York: Paragon House, 1990, 27-34.
  61. "'Do not buy anything from an Aramaean'. A fragment of Aramaic proverbs with a Judaeo-Iranian version", Acta Iranica (Papers in honor of Ehsan Yarshater), Leiden: Brill, 1990, 230-239.
  62. "'For the sake of the soul': a Zoroastrian idea in transmission into Islam", Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 13 (1990):15-32.
  63. "Zoroastrian polemics against Jews in the Sasanian and early Islamic period", in: Irano-Judaica II, ed. S. Shaked and A. Netzer, Jerusalem 1990, 85-104.
  64. [Review of: J. Russell, Zoroastrianism in Armenia, Cambridge, Mass. 1987], Iranshenasi 2, No. 3 (1990):65-74.
  65. "Administrative functions of priests in the Sasanian period", Proceedings of the First European Conference of Iranian Studies, held in Turin, September 7th-11th, 1987 by the Societas Iranologica Europea Part 1, Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente 1990, 261-273.
  66. "Spurious epigraphy", Bulletin of the Asia Institute in honor of R.N. Frye. Aspects of Iranian Culture, NS 4 (1990):267-275.
  67. "Aspects of Iranian religion in the Achaemenian period", K.R. Cama Oriental Institute. International Congress proceedings, Bombay 1991, 90-100.
  68. "Aspekte von Noruz, dem iranischen Neujahrsfest", in: J. Assmann in Zusammenarbeit mit T. Sundermeier (eds.), Das Fest und das Heilige. Religiצse Kontrapunkte zur Alltagswelt (Studien zum Verstehen fremder Religionen, Band 1), Gutersloh: Gutersloher Verlagshaus Mohn 1991, 88-102.
  69. "Irano-Aramaica: On some legal, administrative and economic terms", in: R.E. Emmerick and D. Weber (eds.), Corolla iranica. Papers in honour of D.N. MacKenzie, Frankfurt a.M., Bern, New York and Paris: Peter Lang, 1991, 167-175.
  70. [Review of Ph. Gignoux, Noms propres sassanides en moyen-perse epigraphique], Orientalia 60 (1991):379- 387.
  71. "The myth of Zurvan: Cosmogony and eschatology", in: I. Gruenwald; S. Shaked; and G.G. Stroumsa (eds.), Messiah and Christos. Studies in the Jewish origins of Christianity presented to David Flusser (Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum, 32), Tubingen: Mohr 1992, 219-240.
  72. Roy Kotansky, J. Naveh and S. Shaked, "A Greek-Aramaic silver amulet from Egypt in the Ashmolean Museum", Le Museon 105 (1992):5-25.
  73. "A Palestinian Jewish Aramaic hemerologion", Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 15 (Studies in Semitic Linguistics in honor of Joshua Blau, 1992):28-42.
  74. "Some Iranian themes in Islamic literature", in: Recurrent patterns in Iranian religions. From Mazdaism to Sufism. Proceedings of the round table held in Bamberg (30th September - 4th October 1991) (Studia Iranica, Cahier 11), Paris: Association pour l'avancement des Etudes iraniennes, 1992, 143-158.
  75. "'Innen' und 'Aussen' in der . Einige typologische Beobachtungen", in: J. Assmann and Theo Sundermeier (eds.), Studien zum Verstehen fremder Religionen, Band 6: Die Erfindung des inneren Menschen, Gtersloh: Gerd Mohn, 1993, 15-27.
  76. "Iranian elements in Middle Aramaic: some particles and verbs", in: W. Skalmowski and A. Van Tongerloo (eds.), Medioiranica. Proceedings of the International Colloquium organized by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven from the 21st to the 23rd of May 1990, Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters and Departement Orientalistiek, 1993, 147-156.
  77. "A dictionary of Aramaic ideograms in Pahlavi", Journal of the American Oriental Society 113 (1993):75-81.
  78. "Notes on the Pahlavi amulet and Sasanian courts of law", Bulletin of the Asia Institute N.S. 7 (1993), 165-172.
  79. "Two Parthian ostraca from Nippur", BSOAS 57 (1994):208-212.
  80. "Items of dress and other objects of common use. Iranian loanwords in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic", in: S. Shaked and A. Netzer (eds.), Irano-Judaica III, Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 106-117.
  81. "Some Islamic reports concerning Zoroastrianism", JSAI 17 (1994):43-84.
  82. בין יהדות לאסלאם. כמה עניינים בתחום הדת העממית, פעמים 60, תשנ"ד, 1994, 4-19 ["Between Judaism and Islam: Some aspects of folk religion", Pe'amim 60].
  83. "Jewish Sasanian sigillography", in: R. Gyselen (ed.), Au carrefour des religions. Mיlanges offerts א Philippe Gignoux (Res Orientales VII), Bures-sur- Yvette, 1995:239-256.
  84. "Qumran: some Iranian connections", in: Z. Zevit; M. Sokoloff; and S. Gitin (eds.), Solving riddles and untying knots. Biblical, epigraphic, and Semitic studies in honor of Jonas C. Greenfield, Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1995, 265-269.
  85. "'Peace be upon you, exalted angels': on Hekhalot, liturgy and incantation bowls", Jewish Studies Quarterly 2 (1995):197-219.
  86. [Review of Mary Boyce, Zoroastrianism. Its antiquity and constant vigour, 1992], Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 58 (1995):375-379.
  87. "A Persian house of study, a king's secretary: Irano-Aramaic notes", Acta Orientalia Acadmiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 48 (1995, Zsigmond Telegdi Memorial Volume):171-186.
  88. חזונות יהודיים ואיראניים בתקופת התלמוד, בתוך: אהרן אופנהיימר, ישעיהו גפני, ודניאל שוורץ (עורכים), היהודים בעולם ההלניסטי והרומי. מחקרים לזכרו של מנחם שטרן, ירושלים: מרכז שז"ר והחברה ההיסטורית הישראלית, תשנ"ו, 1996, עמ' 467-486 ["Jewish and Iranian visions of the Talmudic period", in: A. Oppenheimer, I. Gafni, and D. Schwartz (eds.), The Jews in the Hellenistic and Roman World. Studies in memory of Menahem Stern, Jerusalem, 467-486].
  89. "The traditional commentary on the Avesta (Zand): Translation, interpretation, distortion?", in: La Persia e l'Asia Centrale da Alessandro al X secolo (Atti dei convegni Lincei, 127), Roma: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1996, 641-656.
  90. [Review of: Rika Gyselen, Sceaux magiques en Iran sassanide, Paris 1995], Journal of the American Oriental Society 117 (1997):612-615.
  91. [Review of: Haskell D. Isaacs, with the assistance of Colin F. Baker, Medical and para- medical manuscripts in the Cambridge Genizah collections, Cambridge 1994], Journal of the American Oriental Society 117 (1997):615-616.
  92. "Two types of esotericism", in: Aleida and Jan Assmann (eds.), Schleier und Schwelle. Geheimnis und ײffentlichkeit (Archהologie der literarischen Kommunikation, V,1), Munchen: Wilhelm Fink, 1997, 221-233.

Main research interests

Iranian religions; from Zoroastrian Iran to Islam; history of the Jews in Iran; Judaeo-Persian writings and epigraphy; Iranian epigraphy, Sasanian seals; Iranian loan-words in Aramaic; Aramaic magic texts from Palestine and Babylonia; Aramaic inscriptions. I am planning to be in Europe from September 1998 to February 1999. During this period I shall be attached to the Institut fr Judaistik, at the Freie Universitהt Berlin.

Research Projects:

1. Amulets and magic bowls from Late Antiquity (with J.אNaveh; sequel to previous work).

2. Magical literature in the Cairo Geniza:

(a) Catalogue of the magical material in the Cambridge University Library Geniza Collection;

(b) Edition of selected magical texts from the Cairo Geniza (in collaboration with P.אSch?fer, Berlin). Funding: DFG.

3. Iranian words in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.

4. Religious movements in Sasanian Iran.

5. Early Judeo-Persian literature.

Abstracts of Current Research:

Magical literature in Late Antiquity and in the Cairo Geniza:

An edition of recently discovered amulets from the Palestine region, and of selected Aramaic magic bowls from Babylonia, is being compiled. Also in progress is a study of magic in the Cairo Geniza; selected documents are being prepared for publication.

Iranian words in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic:

A systematic examination is made of the lexicon of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and related Aramaic dialects. Iranian loan-words are discussed.

Religious movements in Sasanian Iran:

A study was made of the various religious ideas in the Sasanian period, on the basis of Zoroastrian sources and of reports found in Christian and Muslim literature.

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