The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Schwartz, Daniel R.


Born Syracuse, New York 1952, emigrated to Israel 1971. Married, seven children. Citizen of USA and Israel.


1971-1980 Hebrew University, Jerusalem (B.A. in History and Jewish History, M.A. and PhD. in Jewish History)

1970/71 Maryland University (History Honors Program)

1968-1971 Baltimore Hebrew College (1-2 courses per semester)

Academic Employment

1979- present: Dept. of Jewish History, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (full prof. since 1995). Dept. chairman, 1992-1994.

1989/91 (on leave): New York University and Jewish Theological Seminary, NY, and Universität Basel and Institut fr jdisch-christliche Forschung, Lucer
1979/80: Dept. of History, Ben-Gurion University, Beersheva

1977-79: Research Foundation for Jewish Immigration, New York (research for encyclopedia of emigrés)

Summer 1977: US National Archives, Washington, D.C. (research for directory to archival repositories)


Féher Prize in Jewish Studies, 1992; Wischnitzer Prize 1988 for book, Agrippa I.

Research Interests

Judean history of the Second Temple period, especially in the fields of historiography and chronology; history of Judaism in that period, with special reference to sectarianism and the Jewish background of Christianity. Modern historiography of the Second Temple period and the impact of the Holocaust upon it.

Research Projects

The emigration of German Judaic scholarship in the Nazi period.

Abstracts of Current Research

Josephus, his sources and Judean chronology:

By analyzing Josephus' methods in combining his various sources, a better understanding of the events described can be attained and choronological difficulties resolved. The order of events in Josephus often reflects the juxtaposition of sources dealing with the same or different topics. This type of investigation leads to a new appreciation of Josephus' presumptions and methods, and to a clearer picture of other Jewish historians of the time (Josephus' sources), as well as to some new conclusions regarding Judean history of that period.

The Jewish background of Christianity:

A Jewish reader may find different interpretations to the New Testament than the Christian reader. In particular, Luke-Acts, a basically historical book with much in common with Josephus, has proved a fruitful source for new insights.

The Holocaust and Jewish studies:

Studies on the impact of the Holocaust on Jewish studies, including its impact upon the views of individual scholars and the results of the displacement of academic Jewish scholarship from the German-speaking world to new centers in America and Israel.

List of Publications

(Unpublished doctoral dissertation): "Priesthood, Temple, Sacrifices: Opposition and Spiritualization in the Late Second Temple Period," Hebrew University, 1980; 357 pages. German summary: Hebräische Beiträge 1 (1985), pp. 2-7.
1. "The Priests in Ep. Arist. 310," Journal of Biblical Literature 97 (1978), pp. 567-571

2. "History and Historiography: 'A Kingdom of Priests' as a Pharisaic Slogan", Zion 45 (1979/80), pp. 96-117 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67. Cf. no. 6)

3. "The Tribes of As. Mos. 4:7-9," Journal of Biblical Literature 99 (1980), pp. 217-223

4. "The Three Temples of 4Q Florilegium," Revue de Qumran 10 (1979-81), pp. 83-91

5. "'To Join Oneself to the House of Judah' (Damascus Document IV,11)," ibid., pp. 435-446

6. "Rejoinder" (concerning no. 2): Zion 46 (1980/81), pp. 59-60 (in Hebrew)

7. "Was Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai a Priest?", Sinai 88 (1980/81), pp. 32-39 (in Hebrew; printed without proofs)

8. "The Epistle of Barnabas and the Revolt of Bar-Kochba," Zion 46 (1980/81), pp. 339-345 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67)

9. "Priesthood and Priestly Descent: Josephus, Antiquities 10. 80," Journal of Theological Studies 32 (1981), pp. 129-135

10. "The Messianic Departure from Judah (4Q Patriarchal Blessings)," Theologische Zeitschrift 37 (1981), pp. 257-266

11. "Pontius Pilate's Suspension from Office: Chronology and Sources," Tarbiz 51 (1981/82), pp. 383-398 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67)

12. "KATA TOUTON TON KAIRON: Josephus' Source on Agrippa II," Jewish Quarterly Review 72 (1981/82), pp. 241-268

13. (Chief compiler), A Classified List of Articles Concerning Emigration in Germany: Jewish Periodicals, Jan. 30, 1933 to Nov. 9, 1938 (ed. H. A. Strauss), New York-Munich: Saur, 1982; 177 pages

14. "Josephus and Philo on Pontius Pilate", in Josephus Flavius: Historian of Eretz-Israel in the Hellenistic-Roman Period (ed. U. Rappaport; Jerusalem 1982), pp. 217-236 (in Hebrew; English version in The Jerusalem Cathedra 3 [1983], pp. 26-45)

15. "Apollonius, son of Menestheus: Whose Ambassador?," American Journal of Ancient History 7 (1982), pp. 45-52

16. "Avoidance of Deification in the Septuagint Version of Leviticus?," Shnaton: An Annual for Biblical and Near Eastern Studies 5-6 (1982), pp. 205-218 (in Hebrew)

17. "Ishmael ben Phiabi and the Chronology of Provincia Judaea," Tarbiz 52 (1982/83), pp. 177-200 (in Hebrew; English version in no.67)

18. Review of: Bibliography of Works on Jewish History in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (edd. M. Mor and U. Rappaport; Jerusalem 1982) -- Zion 48 (1982/83), pp. 217-218 (in Hebrew)

19. "Pontius Pilate's Appointment to Office and the Chronology of Josephus' Antiquities, Books 18-20," ibid., pp. 325-345 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67)

20. "The Contemners of Judges and Men' (11Q Temple 64:12)," Leshonenu 47 (1982/83), pp. 18-24 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67)

21. "Jonas Bondi: Their (sic) Names, Dates and Writings," Kiryat Sefer 58 (1982/83), pp. 417-418 (in Hebrew)

22. "On the Question of Pharisaic Opposition to the Hasmonean Monarchy," Nation and History, I (ed. M. Stern; Jerusalem 1983), pp. 39-50 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67). Hebrew original reprinted in The Hasmonean State (edd. U Rappaport and I. Ronen; Tel-Aviv, 1984)

23. "Two Pauline Allusions to the Redemptive Mechanism of the Crucifixion," Journal of Biblical Literature 102 (1983), pp. 259-268

24. "Non-Joining Sympathizers (Acts 5,13-14)," Biblica 64 (1983), pp. 550-555

25. "Josephus and Nicolaus on the Pharisees," Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 14 (1983), pp. 157-171

26. Review of: J.-P. Lemonon, Pilate et le gouvernement de la Judée: Textes et monuments, Paris 1981 -- Israel Exploration Journal 33 (1983), pp. 146-148

27. "Josephus on the Jewish Constitutions and Community," Scripta Classica Israelica 7 (1983/84), pp. 30-52

28. "The Accusation and the Accusers at Philippi (Acts 16,20-21)," Biblica 65 (1984), pp. 357-363

29. "Philo's Priestly Descent," Nourished with Peace: Studies in Hellenistic Judaism in Memory of Samuel Sandmel (edd. F. E. Greenspahn, E. Hilgert and B. L. Mack), Chico, California 1984, pp. 155-171

30. Review of: T. Rajak, Josephus: The Historian and His Society, London 1983 -- Israel Exploration Journal 35 (1985), pp. 77-79

31. Review of: M. Hengel, Juden, Griechen und Barbaren: Aspekte der Hellenisierung des Judentums in vorchristlicher Zeit, Stuttgart 1976 -- ibid., pp. 206-207

32. "Herod in Jewish Sources," King Herod and His Period (Idan 5, ed. M. Naor; Jerusalem 1985), pp. 38-42 (in Hebrew)

33. "'Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites?: Who are the 'Scribes' in the New Testament?," Zion Jubilee Volume (= Zion 51 [1985]), pp. 121-132 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67)

34. Review of: M. Hengel, Rabbinische Legende und frhpharisäische Geschichte: Schimeon b. Schetach und die achtzig Hexen von Askalon, Heidelberg 1984 -- Zion 51 (1985/86), pp. 363-364

35. "Viewing the Holy Utensils (P. Oxy. V, 840)," New Testament Studies 32 (1986), pp. 153-159

36. "The Futility of Preaching Moses (Acts 15,21)," Biblica 67 (1986), pp. 276-281

37. "The End of the gê (Acts 1:8): Beginning or End of the Christian Vision?," Journal of Biblical Literature 105 (1986), pp. 669-676

38. "Temple and Desert: On Religion and State in Judaea of the Second Temple Period," Priesthood and Monarchy (edd. I. Gafni and G. Motzkin; Jerusalem 1987), pp. 61-78 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67)

39. Agrippa I: The Last King of Judaea (Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center, 1987), 238 pages (in Hebrew). English version with same title published as Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum, vol. 23), Tbingen: Mohr (Siebeck), 1990; 233 pages.

40. "Kingdom of Priests," Contemporary Jewish Religious Thought (edd. A. A. Cohen and P. Mendes-Flohr; New York 1987), pp. 527-534 (Hebrew version appeared in 1993)

41. "On Abraham Schalit, Herod, Josephus, the Holocaust, Horst R. Moehring, and the Study of Ancient Jewish History," Jewish History 2/2 (Fall 1987), pp. 9-28. Cf. nos. 87, 102.

42. Review of: Bibliography of Works on Jewish History in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Periods: Publications of the Years 1981-1985 (comp. and ed. by D. Dimant, M. Mor and U. Rappaport; Jerusalem 1987) -- Zion 53 (1987/88), pp. 72-74 (in Hebrew)

43. "More on 'Zechariah ben Avkules: Humility or Zealotry'?," ibid., pp. 313-316 (in Hebrew)

44. Review of: The Rabbinical Seminary of Budapest, 1877-1977: A Centennial Volume (ed. M. Carmilly-Weinberger), New York 1986 ; ibid., pp. 447-449

45. "On Quirinius, John the Baptist, the Benedictus, Melchizedek, Qumran and Ephesus," Mémorial Jean Carmignac (edd. F. García Martínez and E. Puech; Paris 1988), pp. 635-646

46. Review of: S. S. Miller, Studies in the History and Traditions of Sepphoris, Leiden 1984 -- Israel Exploration Journal 38 (1988), pp. 283-284

47. "Eulogy for Prof. Menahem Stern", Zion 54 (1988/89), pp. 272-274 (in Hebrew)

48. "'Caesarea' and its 'Isactium'," Cathedra 51 (April 1989), pp. 21-34 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67)

49. "Philonic Anonyms of the Roman and Nazi Periods: Two Suggestions," Studia Philonica Annual 1 (1989), pp. 63-73

50. "The Legacy of the German-Speaking Institutions of Jewish Studies: Work in Progress," World Union of Jewish Studies News-Letter 29 (Summer 1989), pp. 5*-8*

51. Review of: J. Kampen, The Hasideans and the Origin of Pharisaism: A Study in 1 and 2 Maccabees, Atlanta 1988 -- Jewish Quarterly Review 80 (1989/90), pp. 187-189

52. Review of: R. L. Brawley, Luke-Acts and the Jews: Conflict, Apology and Conciliation, Atlanta 1987 -- ibid. pp. 427-429

53. "Drama and Authenticity in Philo and Josephus," Scripta Classica Israelica 10 (1989/90), pp. 113-129

54. "Two Aspects of a Priestly View of Descent at Qumran," Archaeology and History in the Dead Sea Scrolls: The New York University Conference in Memory of Yigael Yadin (ed. L. H. Schiffman; Journal for the Study of the Pseudipigrapha Supplementary Series 8, JSOT/ASOR Monographs 2), Sheffield 1990, pp. 157-179 (printed without proofs)

55. Review of: E. J. Bickerman, The Jews in the Greek Age, Cambridge, Mass. 1988 -- Shofar 8/2 (Winter 1990), pp. 90-92

56. Review of: P. Villalba i Varneda, The Historical Method of Flavius Josephus, Leiden 1986 -- Journal of the American Oriental Society 110 (1990), pp. 131-132

57. "On Some Papyri and Josephus' Sources and Chronology for the Persian Period," Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 21 (1990), pp. 175-199 (printed without proofs)

58. Review of: M. Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt Against Rome A.D. 66-70, Cambridge 1987 -- Israel Exploration Journal 40 (1990), pp. 237-239

59. "The End of the Line: Paul in the Canonical Book of Acts," Paul and the Legacies of Paul (ed. W. S. Babcock), Dallas 1990, pp. 3-24, 307-324

60. Review of: B. Bar-Kochva, Judas Maccabaeus: The Jewish Struggle Against the Seleucids, Cambridge 1989 -- Tarbiz 60 (1990/91), pp. 443-450 (in Hebrew)

61. "Early but Opposed, Supported but Late: Two Berlin Seminaries that Attempted to Move, Part I: On Lithuanian Patrons, German Clients, and the 1933 Attempt to Transfer the Hildesheimer Seminary to Palestine," Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute 36 (1991), pp. 267-283,297-301

62. "On Some New and Old Wine in Peter's Pentecost Speech (Acts 2)," Heirs of the Septuagint: Philo, Hellenistic Judaism and Early Christianity -- Festschrift for Earle Hilgert (Studia Philonica Annual 3/Brown Judaic Studies 230, edd. D. M. Hay, D. T. Runia and D. Winston), Atlanta 1991, pp. 256-271

63. Review of: M. Hengel, The Zealots, Leiden 1989 -- Israel Exploration Journal 41 (1991) 219-221

64. Review of: M. Hengel, The Hellenization of Judaea in the First Century After Christ, London-Philadelphia 1989 -- Zion 57 (1991/92), pp. 207-212 (in Hebrew)

65. "Qumran Between Priestliness and Christianity," The Scrolls of the Judaean Desert: Forty Years of Research (edd. M. Broshi, S. Japhet, et al.; Jerusalem 1992), pp. 176-181 (in Hebrew)

66. "Response on Early Judeo-Christianity," Mishkan 16 (1992), pp. 75-76

67. Studies in the Jewish Background of Christianity (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, vol. 60), Tbingen: Mohr (Siebeck), 1992; xii + 304 pages (16 studies: 12 revised English versions of previously published Hebrew articles; 4 previously unpublished)

68. "Between Priests and Sages in the Second Temple Period", in Variety of Opinions and Views in Jewish Culture, II (ed. Dror Kerem; published by Israel Ministry of Education and Culture; n.p. 1992), pp. 63-79 (in Hebrew)

69. "Pontius Pilate," Anchor Bible Dictionary V (1992), pp. 395-401

70. "Law and Truth: On Qumran-Sadducean and Rabbinic Views of Law," The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research (edd. D. Dimant and U. Rappaport), Leiden-Jerusalem 1992, pp. 229-240

71. Obituary for Menachem Stern: St. John's College Notes 1992, pp. 70-71

72. Review of: S. A. Cohen, The Three Crowns: Structures of Communal Politics in Early Rabbinic Jewry, Cambridge 1990 -- Journal of Church and State 34 (1992), pp. 886-887

73. " 'What Should He Have Said' 'And live by them?'," in: Sanctity of Life and Martyrdom: Studies in Memory of Amir Yekutiel (edd. I. M. Gafni and A. Ravitzky; Jerusalem 1992), pp. 69-83 (in Hebrew). Cf. no. 76.

74. "Berlin, Lithuania and the Far East: On Some Responsa and 'Correction by Elimination'," Kiryat Sefer 64 (1992/93), pp. 1077-1087 (in Hebrew). An appendix to no. 61.

75. "Felix and Isopoliteia, Josephus and Tacitus", Zion 58 (1992/93), pp. 265-286 (in Hebrew)

76. Leben durch Jesus versus Leben durch die Torah -- Zur Religionspolemik der ersten Jahrhunderte (Franz-Delitzsch-Vorlesung 1991, Heft 2), Mnster 1993; 23 pages. Revised version of no. 73.

77. "On Qumran Halakhah", Jewish Studies: Forum of the World Union of Jewish Studies 33 (1993), pp. 71-74

78. "Scipio's Embassy and Simon's Ambassadors (I Maccabees 15)," Scripta Classica Israelica 12 (1993; Ra'anana Meridor Volume), pp. 114-126

79. "Joseph ben Illem and Herod's Death," in: Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple, Mishna and Talmud Period: Studies in Honor of Shmuel Safrai (edd. I. Gafni, A. Oppenheimer and M. Stern; Jerusalem 1993), pp. 65-74 (in Hebrew; English version in no. 67)

80. Response to J. H. Charlesworth, "Rethinking Jesus' Jewishness," SIDIC (review of Service internationale de documentation judéo-chrétienne) 26/3, 1993, pp. 15-18; also in French edition, pp. 14-17

81. Review of: The Galilee in Late Antiquity (ed. Lee I. Levine, 1992) -- Journal of the American Oriental Society. 7 pages.

82. "Josephus on Hyrcanus II," in: Josephus and the History of the Greco-Roman Period: Essays in Memory of Morton Smith (edd. F. Parente & J. Sievers; Leiden 1994), pp. 210-232

83. "A Novel Biography" (review of M. Hadas-Lebel, Flavius Josephus [1993]) -- Jerusalem Post, 1 July 1994.

84. "Hasidim in I Maccabees 2:42?," Scripta Classica Israelica 13 (1994), pp. 7-18

85. "The Immigration of Jewish Historians to Palestine" (review of: R. Jtte, Die Emigration der deutschsprachigen "Wissenschaft des Judentums": Die Auswanderung jdischer Historiker nach Palästina, 1933-1945 (Stuttgart 1991) -- Cathedra 73 (September 1994), pp. 146-151.

86. (together with J. M. Baumgarten), "Damascus Document," in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek Texts with English Translations, vol. II (ed. J. H. Charlesworth), Tbingen - Louisville, 1995, pp. 4-57. Co-author of introduction, responsible for columns 1-8,19-20.

87. "More on Schalit's Changing Josephus: The Lost First Stage," Jewish History 9/2 (Fall 1995), pp. 9-20. Cf. no. 41, 102.

88. M. Stern, Hasmonaean Judaea in the Hellenistic World: Chapters in Political History (Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center, 1995), 298 pages (in Hebrew). Edited from handwritten manuscripts after author was murdered.

89. "On the Main Historiographic Sources for the Hasmonean Revolt and State", and, in: In the Days of the Hasmonean House (edd. D. Amit & H. Eshel), Jerusalem 1995, pp. 133-146 (in Hebrew)

90. "Chronological Table for the Hasmonean Period", ibid., pp. 325-328 (in Hebrew)

91. "Temple or City: What did Hellenistic Jews See in Jerusalem?," in: The Centrality of Jerusalem: Historical Perspectives (edd. M. Poorthuis and C. Safrai), Kampen 1996, pp. 114-127

92. "God, Gentiles, and Jewish Law: On Acts 15 and Josephus' Adiabene Narrative," in: Geschichte - Tradition - Reflexion: Festschrift fr Martin Hengel zum 70. Geburtstag, I (ed. P. Schäfer), Tbingen 1996, pp. 263-282

93. "MMT, Josephus and the Pharisees", in: Reading 4QMMT: New Perspectives on Qumran Law and History (edd. J. Kampen& M. J. Bernstein; Atlanta 1996), pp. 67-80

94. (coeditor, with I. M. Gafni & A. Oppenheimer), The Jews in the Hellenistic-Roman World: Studies in Memory of Menahem Stern (Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center, 1996)

95. "On Antiochus VII Sidetes' Parthian Expedition and the Fragmentation of Historical Research," ibid., pp. 83-102 (in Hebrew)

96. Review of R. Gray, Prophetic Figures in Late Second Temple Jewish Palestine (1993) -- Jewish Quarterly Review 87 (1996/97), pp. 219-222

97. "The Jews of Egypt between the Temple of Onias, the Temple of Jerusalem, and Heaven," Zion 62 (1996/97), pp. 5-22 (in Hebrew)

98. Review of A. Momigliano, Essays on Ancient and Modern Judaism (1994) -- ibid., pp. 423-428 (in Hebrew)

99. "Cassius' Chronology and Josephus' Vagueness,' Scripta Classica Israelica 16 (1997; Studies in Memory of Abraham Wasserstein, II), pp. 102-112

100. "Hillel and Scripture: From Authority to Exegesis,' Hillel and Jesus (Proceedings of 1992 Jerusalem Conference on Hillel and Jesus, ed. J. H. Charlesworth), Philadelphia 1997, pp. ________

101. "For Apion" (review of A. Kasher's Hebrew translation of Josephus' Against Apion), Zemanim 59 (Summer 1997), pp. 103-105 (in Hebrew)

102. "Josephus, Herod and Abraham Schalit: Between National 'Life' and 'Survival' of the Nation," in: Zionism and Education for Zionism (Topics in the Continuing Training of Teachers, vol. 7, ed. M. Barlev; Jerusalem 1997), pp. 45-52 (in Hebrew): Cf. nos. 41, 87.

103. "The Historical Background of the Dead Sea Sect," in: On a Scroll of a Book: Articles on the Dead Sea Scrolls (ed. L. Mazor; Jerusalem 1997), pp. 27-39 (in Hebrew)

104. "Joseph M. Baumgarten: An Appreciation," in: Legal Texts and Legal Issues: Proceedings of the Second Meeting of the International Organization for Qumran Studies, Cambridge 1995, Published in Honour of Joseph M. Baumgarten (edd. M. Bernstein, F. García Martínez & J. Kampen; Leiden 1997), pp. xv-xviii.

105. "From Rabbinicial Seminaries to the Institute of Jewish Studies," in: The History of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Origins and Beginnings (edd. S. Katz & M. Heyd; Jerusalem 1997), pp. 457-475 (in Hebrew)

106. "On Something Biblical About 2 Maccabees," Biblical Perspectives: Early Use and Interpretation of the Bible in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls (edd. M. E. Stone & E. Chazon), Leiden 1998, pp. 223-232

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